Around Africas Chad, Victoria and Turkana lakes, ape-like creatures developed
into two different groups. One group continued to live in the tropical forests.
The other group moved out into the grasslands.
In the grasslands they needed to stand up on two legs so they could spot lions
or leopards that might attack them, which left their hands free to pick up sticks.
Learning to use their hands to carry things took many centuries.
The Stone Age existed 2 million to 10,000 years ago. Some of these
creatures could not survive, but the ones that did got stronger
and smarter. Their families evolved over millions of years. In the
last half million years things began to happen. They began sharpening
their rocks and shaping them into more useful tools such as axes.
About 10,000 years ago, these African humanoids
began living around the present day Sahara
and the southern and eastern coasts of the Indian Ocean. They began to travel
with the seasons and the food. They learned to gather and hunt for their family
units and larger groups called clans or tribes. They began to gather the different
grains that grew. Soon, they were farming, hunting, and fishing. They also learned
to control the collections of animals, such as sheep, goats and cattle.
One person could now grow the crops for many. One family could
herd the goats for a tribe. A man could build tools. A woman could
lead a ceremony. We call this emergence of roles social organization.